So today I’d like to posit some overall thoughts on the “Internet of Things”, specifically pointed at the innovation space and getting products to market. This is quite outside of my company’s normal wheelhouse, but I think our hands on perspective of what hits the streets (and our desks) will be unique enough to pique interest from a broader audience. For those in the security space, I guess I should apologize for the lack of direct exploitation techniques, but this diatribe is really meant for the broader group outside of our walls.
So, you (or your company) have a great idea to change the world and make a huge profit. First of all, congrats and good luck. All you have left to do is write some code, design some hardware and package it all together into an amazing widget. The only problem you face is a temporal one… if you thought of something, chances are others are also thinking about your problem, and hence the race to market begins.
Speaking of your market, my view is that it functions in 1 of 3 distinct ways:
- You find yourself entering the market as a sole innovating product with no direct competitors
- You have a unique and special flair for your product, but you are not alone in the space.
- You are a big name vendor that is entering the space.
Realistically, the “big name vendor” should not be a separate bullet. Your specific product falls into either of the “novel” or “iterative” spaces listed, but your name and power come with some additional considerations. The new device you are shipping will benefit from your company name and the reputation you have with customers, but if the product fails you will see negative impacts outside of your space. Simply, if your newly enhanced smart TV ships with copious numbers of security flaws, that branding might negatively impact other business units.
For the “iterative” space, you will benefit from the general advertising across your competitive landscape. This effect should be considered cumulative, if not exponential, as the barrage of adverts self validates the product as needed and required from the consumer view. Given you don’t have to sell the overall vision, your advertising tends to focus not on the overall technology but on your special sauce.
For the “novel & new” product designs, you are laden with selling the concept that the market has a hole and consumers simply can’t live in a world with such a void. As your product is alone in it’s space, it sells itself once the consumer is convinced of the overall void.
Now, I mention the advertising space because I believe it embodies a considerable amount of how you as an innovator personally see your product. It is a faint echo of what your priorities are and a telling exhibit of how you are specifically positioned in the market. It also allows me (as a security researcher) to assume what level of security to expect in the product. I do this by extrapolating your security design as a function of “assumed priorities” and “time from design to market”, generally the faster you race the weaker I expect your implementations are. It is logical (although a bit cheating), but the metric seems valid from analysis to date.
In general, no company is going to reinvent the wheel. There is no need, it costs too much and is generally a bad idea (hopefully gone are the days of rolling your own crypto). Instead, I predict your product will be based on a fairly standard design:
- You have some embedded processor running Linux (or if you hate me personally, Windows)
- If you are constrained or concerned about speed / size / power, you drop linux and ship with an RTOS or code on bare metal instead
- Following good software engineering principles, your code is modular and uses large swaths of code not written specifically for this project (libc, WiFi and IP stacks, display drivers, etc.)
- You build your product around a known processor and follow design guidelines from the manufacturer, possibly even basing your design on a template provided by the vendor
- Knowing mistakes happen, you ship your device with debugging capabilities enabled or easily re-enabled… this helps with RMA problems and figuring out how fielded devices fail
This in essence is efficient design, you offload as much engineering as you can on previously proven and fielded devices and leave only the hard and specific problems to yourself. You cut costs and gain a robust support architecture. Aside from the last bullet, this mentality it is a sound. But in reality nothing is free, and these choices have the following consequence:
As a researcher, I am already familiar with your product before you ship it
- I know the system on chip reference designs and suggested hardware designs
- I know the operating system particulars
- I know how to debug your product
- I am aware of the known issues in your building blocks
In general, this is why I see innovation “Time to Market” as a realistic metric for “Time to Failure”. Your wonderful engineering practices and time saving approaches leave your product prone to exploitation. In a grim reality, your largest saving grace when racing to push things to market is the actual market saturation itself; the case is not “is your device insecure” as much as “has anyone spent the time to look at it instead of a competitor or another device”. I honestly don’t mean to be dismissive here, I respect the hard engineering problems you have overcome. I’m simply stating that I find it rare that a “novel new product” is actually new or unknown to us in the security industry. To borrow from the above example, your new smart TV is identical to the embedded industrial control system I looked at last week.
I promise we are almost past the dour news, but simply stated the following assumptions appear to drive your "idea to design to development to shipping" cycle:
- Assumption #1: Your special sauce is cutting / bleeding edge and highly innovative. You race these concepts to market before they are secure expecting protection from your building blocks. This is highly understandable from a market perspective, though maybe not the best idea.
- Assumption #2: You assume your selected platforms and building blocks are secure because they are fielded by others. This is sadly incorrect in a general sense. The vendors in that space are following assumption #1 and you are simply the powerless consumer.
We all want to stand on the shoulders of those that came before us, but we need to take the time to understand the limitations of those principles.
Your product will never be 100% secure, nothing is. That is no excuse to not understand your actual security posture and the inherited posture of your base platforms. It is honestly a hard problem, so I will suggest a mindset that might help:
Aim for is a level of security based on the ROI of what you are protecting.
Understand the financial impetus of your market and your potential attackers. Respect your consumer and their needs as much as you respect your own device. This is a simple idea that should be obvious, but I see it disregarded too often to not specifically mention.
It is not that linux and your other “off the shelf” building blocks cannot be configured to be secure enough for your use case, the real problem is that in your rush to market you assume they already are and nothing could be further from ground truth.
What you can do:
- Stop assuming security is someone else’s problem
- Start considering what potential your product has to be misused
- Don’t just test your product with a “happy test path” mentality
- Actively ask your engineers to break your design BEFORE you commit a single line of code or anything to silicon and don't write code until they fail at this task
- Continue this process until you ship your device
- Continue this process as you iterate designs on a shipped product
- Ask for help
- Consider what side effect implications your product has to your customer environments
I don’t mean to shill our services here, but seriously you should ask for external eyes on your design and your product from someone qualified to help. Don’t think that just because we are security consultants or hackers that we are the enemy. Semantics aside, we are honestly here to help. Hire someone to tell you your weak points and take heed to the reports. Consider it an integral part of your marketing budget; I promise it will be considerably cheaper that trying to play publicity cleanup once issues are out in the open.
If you want a product with longevity and a customer base that will continue to buy into your brand and vision, you need to respect them. Take care of them, protect them and don't assume someone else will. The security of your customer is just as much your responsibility as delivering a new device to them is. The decision may delay your time to market by a week or a month, but the end result will be a better product and a better world.